1790 Spirit of Henry IV King of France Bourbon ARMS of Louis XVI Moroccan French

France

$1,250.00

In stock

Free shipping wordwide!


Satisfaction Guaranteed

Unsure? Ask an Expert!

An incredible and rare history of Henry IV of France with the Arms of Louis XVI of France on the cover!

 

Henry IV (1553 – 1610), also known by the epithet “Good King Henry”, was King of Navarre (as Henry III) from 1572 to 1610 and King of France from 1589 to 1610. He was the first French monarch of the House of Bourbon, a branch of the Capetian dynasty.

Louis XVI (1754 – 1793), born Louis-Auguste, also known as Louis Capet, was King of France from 1774 until his deposition in 1792, although his formal title after 1791 was King of the French. He was guillotined on 21 January 1793. His father, Louis, Dauphin of France, was the son and heir apparent of Louis XV of France, but his father died in 1765, and Louis succeeded his grandfather as king in 1774.

 

$1,250.00

In stock

Free shipping wordwide!


Satisfaction Guaranteed

Image Gallery Description & Details

1790 Spirit of Henry IV King of France Bourbon ARMS of Louis XVI Moroccan French

Own a book from the Library of a KING! See photos

An incredible and rare history of Henry IV of France with the Arms of Louis XVI of France on the cover!

 

Henry IV (1553 – 1610), also known by the epithet “Good King Henry”, was King of Navarre (as Henry III) from 1572 to 1610 and King of France from 1589 to 1610. He was the first French monarch of the House of Bourbon, a branch of the Capetian dynasty.

Louis XVI (1754 – 1793), born Louis-Auguste, also known as Louis Capet, was King of France from 1774 until his deposition in 1792, although his formal title after 1791 was King of the French. He was guillotined on 21 January 1793. His father, Louis, Dauphin of France, was the son and heir apparent of Louis XV of France, but his father died in 1765, and Louis succeeded his grandfather as king in 1774.

Main author: France

Title: L’esprit d’Henri IV ou anecdotes les plus interessantes, Traits sublimes,…

Published: A Amsterdam. 1790.

Language: French

Notes & contents:

  • Decorative head/tail-pieces
  • Portrait frontispiece of Henry IV
  • Arms of Louis XVI on front cover
    • Bound in red Moroccan leather

FREE SHIPPING WORLDWIDE

Wear: wear as seen in photos

Binding: tight and secure fine leather binding

Pages: complete with all 280 pages; plus indexes, prefaces, and such

Publisher: A Amsterdam. 1790.

Size: ~7in X 4in (17.5cm x 10cm)

FREE SHIPPING WORLDWIDE

Shipping:

Very Fast. Very Safe. Free Shipping Worldwide.

Satisfaction Guarantee:

Customer satisfaction is our first priority. Notify us within 7 days of receiving your item and we will offer a full refund guarantee without reservation.

$1250

                                                                                     

 

Henry IV (French: Henri IV, read as Henri-Quatre pronounced: [ɑ̃ʁi.katʁ]; 13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), also known by the epithet “Good King Henry”, was King of Navarre (as Henry III) from 1572 to 1610 and King of France from 1589 to 1610. He was the first French monarch of the House of Bourbon, a branch of the Capetian dynasty.

Baptised as a Catholic but raised in the Protestant faith by his mother Jeanne d’Albret, Queen of Navarre, he inherited the throne of Navarre in 1572 on the death of his mother. As a Huguenot, Henry was involved in the French Wars of Religion, barely escaping assassination in the St. Bartholomew’s Day massacre, and later led Protestant forces against the royal army.

Henry, as Head of the House of Bourbon, was a direct male-line descendant of Louis IX of France, and “first prince of the blood”. Upon the death of his brother-in-law and distant cousin Henry III of France in 1589, Henry was called to the French succession by the Salic law. He initially kept the Protestant faith and had to fight against the Catholic League, which denied that he could wear France’s crown as a Protestant. To obtain mastery over his kingdom, after four years of stalemate, he found it prudent to abjure the Calvinist faith. As a pragmatic politician (in the parlance of the time, a politique), he displayed an unusual religious tolerance for the era. Notably, he promulgated the Edict of Nantes (1598), which guaranteed religious liberties to Protestants, thereby effectively ending the Wars of Religion. He was assassinated in 1610 by François Ravaillac, a fanatical Catholic, and was succeeded by his son Louis XIII.[1]

Considered a usurper by some Catholics and a traitor by some Protestants, Henry became target of at least 12 assassination attempts.[2] An unpopular king immediately after his accession, Henry’s popularity greatly improved after his death,[3] in light of repeated victories over his enemies and his conversion to Catholicism. The “Good King Henry” (le bon roi Henri) was remembered for his geniality and his great concern about the welfare of his subjects. He was celebrated in the popular song Vive le roi Henri and in Voltaire’s Henriade.

Contents  [hide]

1              Early life

1.1          Childhood and adolescence

1.2          First marriage and Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre

1.3          Wars of Religion

1.4          “Paris is well worth a Mass”

1.5          Second marriage

2              Achievements of his reign

3              International relations under Henry IV

3.1          Spain and Italy

3.2          Germany

3.3          Ottoman Empire

3.4          East Asia

4              Character

4.1          Nicknames

5              Assassination

6              Legacy

7              Genealogy

7.1          Ancestors

7.2          Patrilineal descent

8              Religion

9              Marriages and legitimate children

10           Armorial

11           Notes

12           References

13           Further reading

14           External links

Early life[edit]

Childhood and adolescence[edit]

Henry was born in Pau, the capital of the joint Kingdom of Navarre with the sovereign principality of Béarn.[4] His parents were Queen Joan III of Navarre (Jeanne d’Albret) and her consort, Antoine de Bourbon, Duke of Vendôme, King of Navarre.[5] Although baptised as a Roman Catholic, Henry was raised as a Protestant by his mother,[6] who had declared Calvinism the religion of Navarre. As a teenager, Henry joined the Huguenot forces in the French Wars of Religion. On 9 June 1572, upon his mother’s death, he became King of Navarre.[7]

Henry III of France on his deathbed designating Henry IV of Navarre as his successor (1589)

First marriage and Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre[edit]

At Queen Joan’s death, it was arranged for Henry to marry Margaret of Valois, daughter of Henry II and Catherine de’ Medici. The wedding took place in Paris on 18 August 1572[8] on the parvis of Notre Dame Cathedral. On 24 August, the Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre began in Paris. Several thousand Protestants who had come to Paris for Henry’s wedding were killed, as well as thousands more throughout the country in the days that followed. Henry narrowly escaped death thanks to the help of his wife and his promise to convert to Catholicism. He was made to live at the court of France, but he escaped in early 1576. On 5 February of that year, he formally abjured Catholicism at Tours and rejoined the Protestant forces in the military conflict.[7]

Wars of Religion[edit]

Henry at the Battle of Arques

Henry IV at the Battle of Ivry, by Peter Paul Rubens

Henry IV, as Hercules vanquishing the Lernaean Hydra (i.e. the Catholic League), by Toussaint Dubreuil, circa 1600

Henry became heir presumptive to the French throne in 1584 upon the death of Francis, Duke of Anjou, brother and heir to the Catholic Henry III, who had succeeded Charles IX in 1574. Because Henry of Navarre was the next senior agnatic descendant of King Louis IX, King Henry III had no choice but to recognise him as the legitimate successor.[9] Salic law barred the king’s sisters and all others who could claim descent through only the female line from inheriting. Since Henry of Navarre was a Huguenot, the issue was not considered settled in many quarters of the country and France was plunged into a phase of the Wars of Religion known as the War of the Three Henries. Henry III and Henry of Navarre were two of these Henries. The third was Henry I, Duke of Guise, who pushed for complete suppression of the Huguenots and had much support among Catholic loyalists. Political disagreements among the parties set off a series of campaigns and counter-campaigns that culminated in the Battle of Coutras.[10] In December 1588, Henry III had Henry I of Guise murdered,[11] along with his brother, Louis Cardinal de Guise.[12] Henry III thought that the removal of Guise would finally restore his authority. Instead, however, the populace were horrified and rose against him. In several cities, the title of the king was no longer recognized. His power was limited to Blois, Tours and the surrounding districts. In the general chaos there was still one power on whom the king could rely — Henry of Navarre and his Huguenots.

The two kings were united by a common interest — to win France from the League. Henry III acknowledged the King of Navarre as a true subject and Frenchman, not a fanatic Huguenot aiming for the destruction of Catholics. Catholic royalist nobles also rallied to the king’s standard. With this combined force the two kings marched to Paris. The morale of the city was low, and even the Spanish ambassador believed the city could not hold out longer than a fortnight. But Henry III was assassinated shortly thereafter (2 August 1589) by a fanatic monk.[13]

When Henry III died, Henry of Navarre nominally became king of France. The Catholic League, however, strengthened by support from outside the country—especially from Spain—was strong enough to prevent a universal recognition of his new title. Most of the Catholic nobles who had joined Henry III for the siege of Paris also refused to recognize the claim of Henry of Navarre, and abandoned him. He set about winning his kingdom by military conquest, aided by English money and German troops. Henry’s Catholic uncle Charles, Cardinal de Bourbon, was proclaimed king by the League, but the Cardinal was Henry’s prisoner at the time.[14] Henry was victorious at the Battle of Arques and the Battle of Ivry, but failed to take Paris after besieging it in 1590.[15]

When Cardinal de Bourbon died in 1590, the League could not agree on a new candidate. While some supported various Guise candidates, the strongest candidate was probably the Infanta Isabella Clara Eugenia of Spain, the daughter of Philip II of Spain, whose mother Elisabeth had been the eldest daughter of Henry II of France.[16] In the religious fervor of the time, the Infanta was recognized to be a suitable candidate, provided that she marry a suitable husband. The French overwhelmingly rejected Philip’s first choice, Archduke Ernest of Austria, the Emperor’s brother, also a member of the House of Habsburg. In case of such opposition, Philip indicated that princes of the House of Lorraine would also be acceptable to him: the Duke of Guise; a son of the Duke of Lorraine; and the son of the Duke of Mayenne. The Spanish ambassadors then selected the Duke of Guise, to the joy of the League. But at that moment of seeming victory the envy of the Duke of Mayenne was aroused, and he blocked the proposed election of a king.

The Parlement of Paris also upheld the Salic law. They argued that if the French accepted natural hereditary succession, as proposed by the Spaniards, and accepted a woman as their queen, then the ancient claims of the English kings would be confirmed, and the monarchy of centuries past would be nothing but an illegality.[17] The Parlement admonished Mayenne, as Lieutenant-General, that the Kings of France had resisted the interference of the Pope in political matters, and that he should not raise a foreign prince or princess to the throne of France under the pretext of religion. Mayenne was angered that he had not been consulted prior, but yielded, since their aim was not contrary to his present views.

Despite these setbacks for the League, Henry remained unable to take control of Paris.

Jeton with portrait of King Henri IV, made in Nuremberg (Germany) by Hans Laufer

Entrance of Henry IV in Paris, 22 March 1594, with 1,500 cuirassiers

“Paris is well worth a Mass”[edit]

On 25 July 1593, with the encouragement of the great love of his life, Gabrielle d’Estrées, Henry permanently renounced Protestantism and converted to Roman Catholicism in order to achieve the French crown, rather than his honest belief in it, thus earning the resentment of the Huguenots and his former ally Queen Elizabeth I of England. He was said to have declared that Paris vaut bien une messe (“Paris is well worth a mass”),[18][19][20] although there is some doubt whether he said this, or whether the statement was attributed to him by his contemporaries.[21][22] His acceptance of Roman Catholicism secured the allegiance of the vast majority of his subjects. Since Reims, the traditional location for the coronation of French kings, was still occupied by the Catholic League, he was crowned King of France at the Cathedral of Chartres on 27 February 1594.[23] He did not forget his former Calvinist coreligionists, however, and in 1598 issued the Edict of Nantes, which granted circumscribed toleration to the Huguenots.[24]

Category

European History

Authors

France

Printing Date

18th Century

Language

French

Binding

Leather

Book Condition

Good

Collation

Complete